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美商务部拟对中兴实施技术出口限制【买球正规网站】

2021-01-19

本文摘要:Thecompany,whichmakessmartphones,wasfoundtohaveviolatedAmericansanctionsagainstIranbysellingUnitedStates-madegoodstothecountry,accordingtoaCommerceDepartmentstatementonMonday

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HONG KONG — ZTE is one of China’s few truly international electronics firms. Yet American companies will now need special permission to sell to it. 香港——中兴通讯(ZTE)是中国为数不多的几个确实国际化的电子企业之一。但美国公司现在将必须取得尤其的许可,才能向它销售产品。The company, which makes smartphones, was found to have violated American sanctions against Iran by selling United States-made goods to the country, according to a Commerce Department statement on Monday. As a result, ZTE will be blocked from buying any technology from American companies without a special license. 美国商务部在周一发表声明称之为,该部找到这家生产智能手机的公司,向伊朗销售了美国生产的商品,这违背了美国针对伊朗的制裁。因此将禁令中兴从美国企业订购任何技术,除非该企业持有人专门的许可证。

ZTE planned to “illicitly re-export controlled items to Iran in violation of U.S export laws,” the Commerce Department said. The sanctions against Iran, many of which were recently lifted, were intended to restrict Iran’s nuclear work. 商务部回应,中兴计划“违背美国的出口法规,擅自向伊朗再行出口管控物品”。美国针对伊朗的制裁,目的容许伊朗发展核武器,不过其中有不少制裁措施早已在近期中止。

The export controls against ZTE are unusual because such actions are rarely taken against such large companies. The action underscores how important the push is by the United States to gain China’s cooperation in embargoes intended to combat nuclear proliferation. 针对中兴通讯采行的出口掌控并不多见,因为美国很少对这样的大型企业采行此类措施。这一行径突显出,美国多么推崇通过施加压力,来促成中国因应目的遏止核武器蔓延的贸易禁令。The export controls are also risky because they could easily prompt a backlash from Beijing. Technology has become an increasingly major sticking point in Chinese-American relations, with Washington having openly accused Chinese government-sponsored hackers of stealing American trade secrets. 此类出口控制措施也不存在风险,因为它们很更容易引起北京做出强烈反应。

随着华盛顿公开发表谴责,不受中国政府反对的黑客盗取美国商业秘密,技术领域日益沦为了中美关系中的众多难题。Recent scrutiny in the United States has also scuttled some Chinese investments in American tech companies. ZTE’s much larger domestic competitor, Huawei, is effectively banned from selling its telecom network equipment in the United States. 美国最近的审查行动,也让一些中国公司对美国科技企业的投资成为泡影。

中兴在中国国内有一个规模比它小得多的竞争对手——华为。这家公司已被禁令在美国出售其电信网络设备。Beijing has fought back by increasing scrutiny of American companies’ operations in China. It fined Qualcomm for antitrust violations and raided Microsoft’s offices as part of a continuing investigation. 北京回应不予反攻,强化了对在华经营的美国企业的检视。

官方以违背中国的反垄断法为由给高通(Qualcomm)班车罚单,并在一项持续多时的调查行动中,对微软公司在中国的多个办公室展开了突击调查。Chinese state news media has complained bitterly about revelations from the former National Security Agency contractor Edward J. Snowden about American spying and has called for a domestic purge of United States technology. 对于国家安全局(National Security Agency)前承包商雇员爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)透露的美国在华的间谍行动,中国官方媒体曾不予反感谴责,并敦促在境内避免美国技术。Although analysts said that the export controls against ZTE were most likely aimed at nuclear proliferation rather than being a new jab in heightened technology trade tensions, China’s interpretation of the action was an open question. 尽管分析人士回应,针对中兴的出口掌控有可能主要是为遏止核武器蔓延,而非更进一步性刺激本就紧绷的中美技术贸易关系,但目前尚能不具体中国不会如何理解美国的这一措施。

“Depending on how both sides read it, this could be a specific case, or it could get overheated and extended,” said Scott Kennedy, a scholar at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, a nonprofit research group. “这各不相同双方如何理解它,有可能会被看做一个特例,也有可能被加剧和不断扩大,”非营利研究的组织国际战略研究中心(Center for Strategic and International Studies)学者甘思德(Scott Kennedy)说道。Trading of ZTE’s shares was suspended Monday before the announcement. News of the export controls was first reported by Reuters. ZTE was not immediately available for comment. 在美国商务部收到声明之前,中兴的股票已于周一停止交易。出口掌控的消息最先是由路透社报导的。

记者没能及时联系到中兴置评。ZTE’s status within China is likely to make the export controls big news there. Though not well known in the United States, ZTE is an international champion of the Chinese high-tech industry, with a market capitalization of around $10 billion. After China’s first lady, Peng Liyuan, aroused online criticism by using an Apple iPhone during a 2013 trip to Mexico, she switched to a ZTE phone for a public trip in 2014. 考虑到中兴在中国的地位,中国媒体可能会对出口掌控展开重点报导。尽管中兴在美国并不为人所知,但它是中国高科技企业国际化的领头羊,市值大约为100亿美元。中国第一夫人彭丽媛2013年采访墨西哥时用于了苹果公司的iPhone,这在网上引起了抨击。

2014年展开公开发表采访时,她就替换成了一台中兴手机。In Monday’s statement, the Commerce Department provided two internal ZTE documents to back up the claims that the company was violating sanctions. One, from 2011, signed by several senior ZTE executives, discussed the risks of United States export controls and noted that ZTE had “ongoing projects in all five major embargoed countries — Iran, Sudan, North Korea, Syria and Cuba.” It also said that the Iran project was the “biggest risk.” 在周一的声明中,美国商务部发布了两份中兴的内部文件,借以佐证该部对中兴明确提出的违背制裁的指控。其中之一是2011年的一份文件,该文件有多位中兴高管签署,文中辩论了美国实行出口掌控的风险,并提及“目前我司在伊朗、苏丹、朝鲜、叙利亚、古巴五大经济制裁国都有在继续执行的项目”。

它还回应,伊朗的项目是“风险仅次于”的一个。In the other document, ZTE mapped out the way it could circumvent American export controls in a complex flow chart, including using a “shell” company structure. 在另一份文件中,中兴用一个简单的流程图,制订了回避美国出口掌控的办法,还包括使用一个“空壳”公司的结构。

The new export controls are likely to make business difficult for ZTE. Though the company sells its own branded smartphones and telecom infrastructure equipment, it buys components from American tech companies, using, for example, Qualcomm chips in some of its phones. Given the complexity of the electronics supply chain and the mass production of specific devices, it will probably prove costly for ZTE to shuffle the design and sourcing for its products. 美国新的实行的出口掌控,可能会让中兴较为无以经商。尽管该公司出售自有品牌的智能手机和电信基础设备,但它也不会从美国技术企业订购部件,比如在它的某些手机中使用高通的芯片。

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考虑到电子行业供应链和类似设备大规模生产的复杂性,它可能会让中兴在调整设计和为其产品订购部件时,代价极大的代价。Daniel H. Rosen, a partner at the research firm Rhodium Group, said that given ZTE’s behavior, it would have “required an extraordinary degree of confidence building” between the United States and China to avoid the current situation. 研究公司荣鼎咨询(Rhodium Group)合伙人荣大聂(Daniel H. Rosen)回应,考虑到中兴的不道德,要尽量避免目前的状况,必须中美之间“创建起非同寻常的信任”。“That does not appear to have taken place,” he said. “这点或许不太可能构建,”他说道。


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